Computers have come a long way since being introduced in the 1940s. The very first computer took up about 1,800 square feet and weighed nearly 50 tons. Now, they are small enough to take anywhere and with even more capabilities. They’ve expanded into phones, tablets, and other electronic devices that we rely on for daily life.
Electronic devices with flexible displays for healthcare, driving, and other everyday uses are becoming more and more in demand. It is challenging to have those devices also be transparent, stretchable, and lightweight while keeping their thermal, environmental, and mechanical capabilities the same. Lighter and more flexible computers often sacrifice durability. Likewise, stronger ones sacrifice portability. Combining both into one perfect device is yet to be done.
The solution may lie in graphene. This relatively new material was discovered in 2004, won its discoverers a Nobel Prize in 2010, and is now beginning to change the world. Graphene is made from carbon and forms a hexagonal shape, making it thinner than a human hair but stronger than steel. More qualities make it a frontrunner in replacing other substances in daily life like plastic, certain types of metal, and many construction materials.
Graphene’s conductivity makes it a prime contender for building electronic devices. Graphene is capable of 10 times more heat than copper, and can conduct 250 times more electricity than silicon. If graphene replaced silicon in computers, the processors would use less power and run about 1,000 times faster. On top of that, graphene is over 200 times stronger than steel — meaning that if you drop a graphene-made laptop, it will remain virtually untouched. The material has also exhibited water resistant traits, meaning that a graphene-based electronic device would also be protected from the elements.
Flexibility is another of graphene’s advantages when used for creating computers. South Korean scientists at Yonsei University demonstrated an “entangled graphene mesh network” (EGMN) that is highly stretchable and stable under harsh conditions. Graphene is placed on a copper base, chemical vapor deposition is used to immerse it into an etchant solution. Then, small holes form, allowing it to crumble, wrinkle and bend. To further graphene’s stretching capabilities, the solution’s EGMNs get transferred into materials like polyimide, stretchable latex, and silicon dioxide. The final substance is bendable and able to be applied to engineering various forms of technology.
Though graphene has tremendous capabilities for the digital world, it has obstacles to overcome before being accepted into mainstream society. Graphene’s high electric conductivity is both its greatest strength and weakness, and its lack of band gap means it cannot control the flow of electricity to its processors. Before graphene can address issues of durability and flexibility, we will need to find solutions for its various weaknesses.
Despite setbacks, developments in graphene are making strides every day. Researchers at the Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology have developed a graphene-like substance with silicon’s band gap, bringing graphene closer to being used in electronic products. The computer’s journey over the past century is impressive. With graphene’s help, it is sure to make more strides beyond our wildest imagination. Watch closely for graphene to transform how we use technology in the years to come.
When it comes to protection, Kevlar has long been the standard for body armor. The heat-resistant synthetic fiber was discovered in 1965, and it’s high tensile strength-to-weight ratio makes it five times stronger than steel. It has many uses, but its most well-known application is in body armor, where it has been essential in bulletproofing soldiers, law enforcement, and others in security-based professions. And yet, Kevlar is only a stepping stone compared to the capabilities offered by graphene, which could take body armor to new level of protectiveness.
Graphene’s major advantage over Kevlar is that it is 200 times stronger than steel, a substantial increase in strength over the popular body armor material. Not only that, but it is lightweight: graphene is made up of a single layer of carbon atoms formed together in a honeycomb lattice-like formation. The single layer means that graphene is one of the thinnest materials in the world. Graphene is not only strong, but its thin and flexible, making it much more versatile than Kevlar.
Researchers have not let graphene’s protective capabilities go unnoticed. Experiments at the City University of New York demonstrated a taste of how graphene can revolutionize body protection. They created a diamene (two layer) graphene foil that was so strong even a diamond tip was unable to perforate the material. Two atomic layers of graphene is still thousands of times thinner than even a single hair, but features such protective strength. This new form of graphene could act as flexible protective coatings to be placed on top of body armor, further increasing its strength. Interestingly, the experiments discovered that this ultra-hardening effect only occurs when two layers of graphene are used, and extra layers are shown to lessen the material’s effectiveness. Nevertheless, the defensive capabilities of the two layer graphene coating is remarkable.
In other experiments, there are some who are also attempting to improve body armor by combining graphene with other materials in order to utilize its capabilities. Graphene’s full potential is difficult to bring out on its own. As a result, scientists have found a way around this by creating graphene composites that give us access to aspects of graphene’s properties. A research team at Imperial College created a company, Synbiosys, to test compositing graphene with silk to create an extremely lightweight, flexible and extremely strong material that can be used in body armor. Their tests have shown great promise: they have begun to successfully create the composite material and continue to develop prototypes for real-life application.
Graphene is a tricky material. For one thing, it is extremely difficult to mass produce, making it hard to foresee the widespread use of graphene in body armor. In addition, we have yet to unlock all of the material’s secrets. For instance, why does graphene get weaker when adding more layers? Before graphene can change body armor and other other products for the better, it has a number of challenges to overcome.
But scientists and researchers have already begun to see the fruits of their hard work begin to pay off, and we are continually making advancements in graphene use. The diamene graphene foil, graphene and silk composite, and the numerous recent achievements in graphene research prove that we are not far off from a graphene-based world. For body armor, this represents greater safety and comfort for those who face danger in the line of duty, a worthy advancement for humankind.
Since ancient Rome, concrete has made up the literal building blocks of society. Producing it requires pulling natural resources such as gravel, sand, limestone, and other raw materials. In recent years, the rapid increase in construction has required more concrete, taking a toll on the environment. With no signs of slowing down, the question remains how construction can continue its upward trajectory while preserving the planet.
However, graphene could very well serve as a supplement for concrete, substantially reducing the amount of waste concrete produces. A single layer of carbon atoms formed in a hexagonal lattice, graphene is stronger than steel, extremely flexible, and one of the thinnest materials in existence. These properties and more make it an exciting contender for concrete production, and could provide a strong solution to society’s challenges.
Each year, concrete’s production takes from billions of tons of gravel and sand from rivers and beaches. When these environments are stripped (often illegally), they can change irreparably. Water flow can become faster, flooding into farmlands and cities. It also makes beach communities more likely to experience storm damage without sand as its absorption for heavy rain. Climate change increases this risk. Studies are showing that we are using sediment faster than nature is providing it. The need for a solution has never been more urgent.
Researchers at Exeter University are experimenting with adding graphene to concrete. The result is a material that is four times more water resistant than regular concrete. Its water resistance allows for construction in normally hard-to-reach areas. Concrete made from graphene is twice as strong as regular concrete. Its increased durability would make future buildings more resistant to earthquakes and other strains. While using graphene, raw materials needed to make concrete are decreased by about 50%.
Using graphene in concrete can also open up doors for additional nanomaterials to be included in construction, leading to more innovation. When structures are more stable with graphene concrete, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, ultimately helping to curb climate change.
Though the possibilities for graphene in concrete are exciting as they are necessary, implementing changes will likely not happen fast. The construction industry is the largest consumer of natural resources, so changing its ways will require time and resources on both the state and local level. Graphene in concrete could reduce needed raw materials by up to 40%. Relying on graphene concrete would lessen the temptation for contractors to cut corners, making for safer buildings.
Graphene is just one of several ways to reduce the heavy reliance on natural resources for concrete. Another way is through 3D printing. With continued research and community engagement, the future for concrete looks brighter thanks to science and technology. Perhaps in the future, we could see graphene replace concrete entirely.
As scientists continue to research how to viably integrate graphene technology into everyday products, we are beginning to see how the wonder material might affect particular industries. One such area that graphene is beginning to enter is that of fashion and clothing, and its incorporation could lead to stronger insulation and better protection against the elements, all the while being more comfortable and breathable than any other conventional textile.
Clothing company Volleback has developed one of the first graphene jackets. It took years of research for the founders, working closely with the same material scientists who developed Michael Phelps’ record-breaking Olympic swimsuit.
To develop the jacket, graphene nanoplatelets are created and then blended with polyurethane to create a graphene membrane, which is what makes up one side of the jacket. This membrane is then bonded to nylon, completing the jacket. Not only does the graphene membrane itself contain impressive qualities, but it also strengthens the nylon’s properties. This seems to be the right step for Volleback, as most working graphene products are achieved through compositing graphene with other materials.
The graphene-formed outerwear is reversible, and can have different effects depending on which way the graphene is facing. When facing outward, the graphene membrane absorbs and stores heat from the sun. Since it retains that heat, reversing the graphene membrane will allow it to directly heat the wearer’s body. The jacket distributes heat evenly over the body and its even disperses body humidity. The jacket is considered bacteriostatic, hypoallergenic, anti-static, and certified as non-toxic, according to Volleback’s website. As people purchase and use the graphene jacket, Volleback’s founders hope that new applications of the graphene jacket can be uncovered, which will give them additional ways to improve their product.
But the graphene jacket isn’t the only form of fashion that has gotten attention. In particular, sportswear companies have had the most interest in the material. Its insulation and conductivity make it perfect for winter jackets or even t-shirts that can help athletes withstand the cold. Graphene-infused shoes are also being researched, and some claim that graphene can improve the durability of the rubber sole by 50%.
As is the case with fashion, graphene has also been utilized aesthetically, which just goes to show how universally appealing its wide array of qualities are. Fashion company CuteCircuit has developed the first graphene dress, using graphene composites to conduct low levels of electricity through the garment. It then uses graphene-enhanced sensors to detect breathing patterns, and LED lights change the dress’ color based on breathing patterns. Graphene’s appeal to fashion is a unique one, not only allowing for technological advancements, but aesthetic ones as well.
Graphene fashion, like any other field that is developing uses for the material, is still in its infancy. But the important thing is that scientists have already discovered that it is possible to use. The only obstacles to overcome include working out graphene’s kinks and finding a way to make it widely available so graphene products can be mass-produced for everyone to benefit from.
Within science fiction, particularly the subgenre known as cyberpunk, humans augment themselves with various technological devices and prosthetics to enhance themselves beyond human capabilities, or to repair themselves in ways that perfectly replicate body functions. So how do modern prosthetics fare compared to the technological marvels of fiction? While we have made huge leaps forward in bionics and myoelectrics, we are not quite yet at the level of the cyberpunk future. But with graphene, we may just be able to get there. The material’s strength, light weight, and endless utility could lead to even more dramatic advancements in prosthetic technology.
In modern prosthetics, bionic limbs have done excellently in replicating movement and function of missing body parts for amputees, offering mostly full range of motion for legs, feet, arms, and hands. This can be contributed to the development of myoelectric sensors, which connect the artificial limb to the natural electrical processes generated by muscles in order to enable complex movement. Hand prosthetics in particular have made major advancements in replicating the intricate and specific motor functions of fingers.
Our advancements in prosthetics make it so that we can successfully regain lost function, but still lack meaningful tactile perception. While some might argue that the absence of pain is a benefit, the use of touch to perceive potentially harmful stimuli to the host would be a valuable addition to the features prosthetics provide, not to mention the emotional and psychological relief that may come with such upgrades to prosthetic tech.
This is where graphene can step in. Scientists have begun to use the wonder material to create a graphene-based skin for prosthetics. This e-dermis electrically stimulates the amputee’s nerves non-invasively through the skin, replicating the process of signal relaying that the brain utilizes in tactile feeling. In addition, graphene’s optical transparency allows for 98% of light to pass through it, making the perfect material to utilize solar energy to power these advanced prosthetics. Of course, pain is not the only feeling that this graphene skin would allow users to process, and it’s potential to make the feeling from phantom limbs a reality again is truly wondrous to behold.
Even more intricate, graphene can potentially be used to create small implants and internal prostheses that would be capable of correcting eyesight or hearing, to repair the body and help in overcoming degenerative diseases, or even help mend broken bones. Previously, silicon-based implants were too damaging to internal tissues if disturbed, and the conditions inside the body damaged the electronic components. However, graphene’s strength, being 200 times stronger than steel, and its flexibility make it much more durable. It is also possible to use graphene to create transistors that are gated by the natural fluids surrounding the implant. With graphene, the hyper-advanced technological developments of cyberpunk are closer than ever.
With graphene, prosthetics are on the cusp of reaching the technological heights of science fiction. Like with many graphene-based products, they are mostly in the testing and research phase, but it’s clear that the application of graphene can bring about a new era in the field of prosthetics and change countless lives.
Graphene has the potential to become the next technological wonder of the world, capable of rapidly advancing our technology the way silicon did when it was first incorporated into electronics. As it stands, our technological progress, especially concerning processing power, is slowing down dramatically, particularly when compared to how quickly we advanced after the introduction of silicon.
Silicon is finally hitting its limits, as transistors become smaller (nearly microscopic in scale) yet ever more powerful. But, experts believe that graphene can replace silicon, leading to another great growth in technological advancement. What would this mean for computer processing units (CPUs)? And just how fast could a graphene-laced CPU go?
This “miracle material” is only one atomic layer thick, made up of carbon atoms in a lattice, honeycomb-like formation. It is capable of conducting up to 10 times more heat than copper, and is able to conduct electricity 250 times more efficiently than silicon. Were graphene to replace silicon transistors in computers, processors would run 1,000 times faster and use far less power.
Ideas have been floated to coat copper wiring used in processors with graphene. As wiring in computer processors get smaller, the amount of current density increases, which in turn raises the amount of heat produced. This can lead to higher amounts of resistive-capacitive delay, or RC delay, preventing electronics from higher speeds. Graphene-coated copper wiring can help prevent harmful electromigration and stop the copper from potentially penetrating the dielectric layer.
However, before we claim graphene is the next technological panacea, there are still some obstacles to overcome. The first issue comes from availability and production scale. China controls approximately 80% of graphite market, and large quantities of usable graphite in the rest of the world are few and far between. This means that even with the development of high speed graphene-based technology, it will be a difficult process moving these products to commercial availability, unless steps are made to encourage graphene trade.
Graphene’s greatest strength is also its other weakness: its high capability for electric conductivity. While silicon naturally has a band gap, an energy range where it does not conduct electricity, graphene does not. Having a band gap is essential to controlling the flow of electricity in processors, and without it, graphene’s use, particularly in improving CPU power, won’t be possible.
But the discovery of graphene didn’t win a Nobel Prize in 2010 for no reason. The potential for graphene remains practically immeasurable, and researchers are already finding ways around the difficulties graphene faces. A team from the Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2) claims to have created a graphene-like material with a band gap similar to silicon, which represents a significant step toward full utilization of graphene in electronic products.
Graphene has the clear capability to create a massive surge in technological advancements, and the material’s negative aspects are quickly being resolved through research and development. Commercial use might still feel far away, but it would be foolish to deny that once it reaches the masses, it will change the world.
From its creation in 2004, scientists, researchers, and manufacturers have marveled at graphene’s extraordinary potential to alter our future. After all, the “supermaterial” is thin, flexible, conductible, lighter than air, impermeable to most gases and liquids, and 100 times stronger than steel. However, while graphene’s uses have already proved widespread in fields from consumer tech to environmental science to medical devices, researchers have struggled to use its two-dimensional strength in three-dimensional materials. No longer.
The implications for graphene were stunning when engineers from Virginia Tech and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed a way to 3D print graphene at a resolution far greater than was previously possible. The process expands graphene’s potential applications, making its use more feasible in smaller objects, as well as those with more varied shapes. Whereas before graphite could only be printed in 2D sheets or basic structures, now we have the ability to form more complicated shapes.
The ramifications are widespread. Graphene is now much more likely to be used in materials for infrastructure initiatives, as well as for manufacturing vehicles, airplanes, batteries, artificial limbs, and more. Three of the most exciting areas that researchers will be studying include:
The Space Elevator
The space elevator is a theoretical mode of transportation that, if successfully pursued, would connect Earth and space, making it possible – and more environmentally friendly – to transport objects to space. Up until now, no material was strong enough and light enough to make such a structure possible. With the advent of the new 3D printing process, however, supplies for space stations or colonies could be shipped to space, and the lightweight material would even reduce labor costs for such an endeavor.
Water Purification and Desalination
This year, scientists were able to develop the world’s first laboratory-scale, graphene-based water filter, which successfully removes over 99 percent of the organic material left behind in drinking water after conventional treatment is complete. No other filtration method has come close to removing organic materials with such a high level of success at low pressure. It’s believed that graphene-based membranes could be retrofitted into conventional water treatment plants in the future. As the concentration of organic materials in water supplies increases, our ability to filter them out with chemical coagulants decreases. Graphene could dramatically increase the availability of clean drinking water around the world. In fact, new developments in graphene membranes are even making it possible to convert seawater to drinking water.
Graphene has captured the imagination of scores of scientists studying tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Graphene-based materials are now being used in cardiac, neural, bone, cartilage, musculoskeletal, and skin tissue engineering. It can replace body parts like bones, as well as organs and nerves. Researchers are already using 3D printers to print graphene-based nerves, and developing biocompatible materials using graphene to conduct electricity. It’s also been used as the basis for 3D printed organs, and can be used to develop ultra-sensitive biomedical sensors, capable of detecting diseases, viruses, and other toxins. These sensors have been tested to detect toxins at levels 10 times less than current sensors, and one is even capable of detecting a single cancerous cell.
3D printing graphene will certainly speed the adoption of new technologies capable of solving some of the world’s biggest challenges. Scientists still need to work on making the affordable mass production of the material a reality, but these experiments are underway and, once it’s ready to enter the mainstream, there will be no shortage of critical solutions at the ready.
The Energizer Bunny had its fifteen minutes of fame in the 1990’s. Today, battery power is extending beyond gadgets, electronic devices, or cars. Typical batteries are becoming obsolete. Newer and more efficient forms of energy storage are taking the spotlight. Demands are high for cheaper, longer-lasting, and quicker-charging forms of power. Energy storage is advancing to new horizons as demands for environmentally friendly forms make way for new innovations.
One of these innovations is solar power. Sunlight is creating environmentally friendly, cost-efficient, and long-lasting energy in the places we reside. Holding massive amounts of energy in solar panels has been a challenge. Lithium-ion batteries have a high density but unfortunately cannot store energy in large enough quantities to power a building or house. What is the solution?
Enter graphene, a two-dimensional carbon material with extreme strength, transparency, and flexibility. Since its discovery in the early 2000’s, graphene has been improving battery performance in several ways. The material is simultaneously lightweight and strong, making it easy to handle. Its short charge time ultimately extends the battery’s life. It requires less carbon than conventional batteries, making it more cost-efficient. Studies show that graphene could double the amount of energy generated by a solar panel. In addition to conducting electrical energy, graphene can store it. That makes it one of the most desirable materials to hit the market. Graphine’s high storage capacity makes it more effective and also safer than Lithium-ion batteries.
As graphene reaches the solar energy industry, its effect is sure to be life-changing. Silicon is currently the material of choice in solar panels, but studies on graphene are showing its higher performing potential. When sunlight hits silicon, it releases a single electron. Graphene, by contrast, would release many more electrons, making it a very desired addition for solar energy. When will graphene be the obvious choice for solar panel energy storage? In time.
With graphene’s immense possibility comes certain challenges. Research on graphene is still in its infant stages. Its newness to the market makes it quite expensive to produce. Depositing graphene electrodes onto a solar cell involves complicated manipulation to its chemistry process. Graphene’s carbon atoms are arranged in a honeycomb pattern, making it flexible, lightweight, and stronger than steel. Converting light into electricity takes it only a femto-second (10−15 second), which is too fast to study easily.
Graphene is already changing the battery industry in other ways. Chinese company Dongxu Optoelectronics has used it in a laptop battery that charges in a few minutes rather than a few hours. Barcelona-based startup Earthdas has used it for batteries in that charge electric bicycles and motorcycles 12 times faster than a normal Lithium-ion battery. Mass production will require much more research on its properties and how to make them most effective for solar panels. Graphene’s importance is undeniable, but further research is required to determine its full capabilities. Until then, the future is bright with this much-needed material, albeit without the cute bunny ears.
Wonder material graphene has proven far more than its weight in gold when it comes to technological innovation, and it appears the possibilities keep on growing. As one particularly promising example, the material was recently used to create solar-powered skin that would allow amputees using prosthetics to regain the sense of touch.
The development comes thanks to engineers from the University of Glasgow, who had previously developed ‘electronic skin’ that covers graphene-based prosthetics. The engineers were able to harness some of the material’s incredible properties to use the sun’s energy to power skin.
Among graphene’s other properties—flexibility, super-strength, and conductibility to name a few—the material has an optical transparency, allowing 98% of the light that strikes it to pass through its surface. This property makes graphene ideal for gathering energy from the sun to harness power.
The innovation was detailed in a paper published in the Journal of Advanced Functional Materials, describing how Dr. Dahiya and his colleagues at Bendable Electronics and Sensing Technologies (BEST) succeeded in integrating power-generating photovoltaic cells into the electronic skin capable of touch sensitivity.
According to Dr. Dahiya, the steps they have made could lead to prosthetics capable of performing difficult tasks like gripping soft materials, and have utilized 3D printing to make said prosthetics more affordable. By forming an active student organization called “Helping Hands,” he hopes to develop lower-cost tactile skin that allows amputees to regain lost sensory feeling.
Touch sensitive-skin is not only useful for amputees, but robots that can make decisions about human safety by developing the ability to sense physical dangers in a work environment, like construction.
The next step for graphene skin? Perfecting the energy-generation capability. Right now, the electronic skin requires 20 nanowatts per square centimeter, a fairly easy requirement to meet. The team is looking into ways to store energy in batteries, with the goal being to develop an entirely energy-autonomous prosthetic limb.
Such an innovation could make a world of difference in healthcare. As the team recently received funding from the Scottish Funding Council, here’s to hoping we see this technology shine sooner rather than later.
From 2010-15, the cost of installing solar panels, for both large-scale utilities as well as residential properties, dropped by over 50%. Further, solar generation prices fell in tandem with this trend, to as little as 3 cents per kilowatt-hour, leading experts to predict that, by 2025, solar may well be cheaper than coal.
But for all its advantages (and they are many), solar panels have one major weakness: they are less efficient during cloudy or rainy days. In cities like Seattle or London, which are often blanketed by clouds or rain, this means decreased efficiency, and perhaps, a higher operating cost.
No longer. Chinese scientists in the northeastern city of Qingdao have developed a special solar panel coated in a single sheet of graphene. First discovered in the British city of Manchester, graphene is an impossibly thin layer of carbon that is one atom thick–and has already been used in a number of applications.
At the heart of this rainproof solar technology is a clever hack that relies heavily on chemical knowledge: because rainwater isn’t pure (it contains calcium, sodium, and ammonium, among other compounds), it reacts with graphene, rotating electrons and generating a small voltage. This charge can then be captured by capacitators and turned into electricity.
Still, as groundbreaking as this technology is, it’s not perfect. These graphene-coated solar panels can only convert about 6.5% of the rain they receive into energy, whereas today’s solar panels can convert up to 22.5% of sunlight into electricity. More importantly, these panels aren’t producing enough electricity: the small electric charges generated by raindrops are tiny microvolts, far below what’s needed to power a single appliance, let alone a home.
Clearly, there’s still a long way to go. But if anything, coating solar panels in thin sheets of graphene may one day push them to become the powerful, all-weather energy source that our planet so desperately needs.